Many webpages list PFJs, for example, Stop Predatory Journals, Cabell’s New Predatory Journal Blacklist, and Beall’s. With over 4,000 predatory journals (according to Cabell’s Blacklist), here are a few things to look out for and signs that give away a bogus journal. To help, we’ve created a very useful checklist, our Predatory Journal Test that you can consult to find out whether your submission will go to one of these type of journals. (2017), Shamseer et al. Beall’s List. Research papers around the world are increasing exponentially but so are the number of retractions. They seem to be mostly keen on collecting fees from authors in return for what they promise – to publish your paper FAST. Eriksson, S.,  Helgesson, G. 2017. Searching the JCR Master List has improved in recent years. #5: The aims and scope of the journal are not defined or rather vague. Rele, S., Kennedy, M., Blas, N. 2017. < EUR 150). No more ‘Beall’s list’. The email started in a friendly way and invited us to consider reviewing a recently submitted paper to the journal. At the end, you don’t have a good publication, you might damage your reputation and certainly waste money. The number of predatory journals and papers published in these journals is continuously growing. Information on whether and how journal content will be digitally preserved is absent. F1000Research, 7, 1001. They offer an instructional video, a checklist similar to the Journal Evaluation Tool and generally lots of good tips for checking the journal’s credibility. The strength of a journal is reflected in the members of its editorial board. These type of journals are not really interested in your paper, – your research, or of high quality. We never received a response on our message. Predatory journals are predatory to authors. #17: The journal is not transparent about the editorial policies that they apply. Predatory journals—also called fraudulent, deceptive, or pseudo-journals—are publications that claim to be legitimate scholarly journals but misrepresent their publishing practices. Knowing how to spot a predatory journal is essential for academics looking to get published. Any journals which solicit manuscripts by mass-mailing researchers should be avoided; reputable journals generally do not solicit authors to publish with them. If the journal has a narrow focus, then it is an indication that the journal is not predatory, although you should validate this with the other checks you are doing. The website contains spelling and grammar errors. The more criteria on the list above that are NOT met by the journal you are aiming for, the higher the likelihood that it does not fall into the category of so-called predatory journals. Yet, this might be a no-win situation. Andersen, R. 2019. Predatory journals and deceptive publishing practices are a pain! Search by keywords: In the field: Search. Have you ever wondered how to spot a so-called predatory journal? It is not very informative and contains factual mistakes and language errors. The rise and rise of predatory journals. The archived version of Beall’s list is available at Beall’s List of Predatory Journals and Publishers. Jeffrey Beall, the most renowned, started to set up a list of predatory journals in 2008. A scoping review. Nowadays, your inbox or your spam folder might be flooded with requests to submit your paper to any number of these journals. 177,666 were claimed for 6,403 legitimate journals (96.69% of all reviews). #11: The journal has a very small editorial board or an editorial board that is still to be announced. ‘Predatory’ open access: A longitudinal study of article volumes and market characteristics. #20: The publisher of the journal is not a member of a recognised professional body that commits to best practices in publishing, e.g. Crackdown on these journals although are somewhat hard to perform as the definition of predatory journals is vague and questionable. There can be, for example, new journals with the best of intentions which cannot have a large number of high-quality papers from many well-known authors yet. Always make sure that the journal you found has the same website and ISSN as the journal you are looking for. However, a serious criticism of Beall’s list is its reliability. You might first be notified – after acceptance of your paper – that you have to pay a fee at all. #8: The journal has a very high acceptance rate of papers. They can find you very easily. Many predatory journals are claiming they are indexed by DOAJ and JCR Master List, while they are not. Predatory journals-also called fraudulent, deceptive, or pseudo-journals-are publications that claim to be legitimate scholarly journals but misrepresent their publishing practices. Archived version of “Beall’s List of Predatory Journals and Publishers”. The scope of interest includes non-biomedical subjects alongside biomedical topics. Many predatory journals will make up an impact factor in an attempt to appear reputable. This is where it’s back to the same question: how to identify predatory/fake journals? Please see We can also help you to find a reputable journal in your subject area. They simply exploit the situation that researchers (in particular young and inexperienced ones), are under pressure to publish in journals. A study by Shen & Björk (2015) revealed a rise of active predatory journals from 1,800 in 2010 to 8,000 in 2016. Authors feel attracted by the promise to get published quickly and are willing to pay for this service. Journals Articles. #9: The paper titles and abstracts contain errors. BMC Medicine 13: 230. This was our personal way of becoming aware of so-called predatory journals and their publishers’ business practices. Journals listed as emergent do not have an established practice or reputation and should be carefully considered. This journal blacklist, based on 52 criteria developed by Beall, was forced to shut down after almost a decade due to increasing threats and political issues. Beall’s List of Predatory Journals and Publishers, International Association of Scientific, Technical, & Medical Publishers (STM), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA). Cabell’s Predatory Journal Blacklist: An Updated Review. Journal Evaluation Tool. When good scientists are involved in running a journal, the peer review process is strong and thorough. Imagine, what would happen if we accepted the invitation to review – without any qualification to do so? What are the exact practices that so-called predatory journals apply? Predatory Journals take advantage of authors by asking them to publish for a fee without providing peer-review or editing services. of Potential Predatory Journals and Publishers. Predatory journals have a bad reputation for taking your money and then publishing your work, often badly and in a place that few other authors will be able to find, read, or cite your study. Embarrassment. Images are distorted/fuzzy, intended to look like something they are not, or which are unauthorized. Take our Predatory Journal Test including all the criteria listed above. Predatory journals could damage the legitimacy of scientific publishing (, 2019) Stop this waste of people, animals and money (Nature, 2017) Predatory publishers: the journals that churn out fake science (The Guardian, 2018) Many academics are eager to publish in worthless journals (The New York Times, 2017) The Directory of Open Access Journals. The word “predator” suggests fangs and claws, but unfortunately, predatory journals are not so easy to spot. Find open access journals & articles. our colleague asked in a recent commentary.In research just published, we dived in to have a look.. For the unfamiliar, the term “predatory journals” has been used to refer to online-only scholarly publishing entities with murky operations. We want to show you how to avoid falling into the predatory journal trap that only exploits researchers and focuses on profits. #12: The journal does not list contact addresses of editors, editorial board members or the publisher. #16: Communication from the journal includes poor language, spelling mistakes or grammar errors. A publication record in predatory journals is anything but helpful in finding and attracting research grants or academic positions. The standalone journals list published by Jeffrey Beall might be the most commonly cited in the literature. We looked through the various available lists of criteria to identify predatory journals: One provided by Beall, Eriksson & Helgesson (2017), Rele et al. There is no regular publication activity visible. The majority of these predatory journals will take payments without ever publishing the work, while others publish articles without any form of an editorial or peer review process. Yet, it seems many, particularly, young and inexperienced researchers that feel the pressure to publish papers still fall for these journals. The journal also receives stronger papers. University World News, 19 Oct 2018. Many of these initiatives had the best of intentions to capitalise on the possibility to share research papers on the Internet, but some unfortunately saw it as an opportunity to make financial profit at the expenses of the publishing system. To identify a predatory journal, you need to go through the journal's website carefully. Potential predatory scholarly open‑access publishers. #23: The journal is listed on Beall’s list of predatory journals or any other journal blacklist. If you have published in a respected journal, if you attended a conference or your name and email address come up on projects or other research-related websites, you will be asked to submit, review papers or even to join their editorial boards. Nature 495(7442): 433–435. Instructions: first, find the journal’s publisher – it is usually written at the bottom of the journal’s webpage or in the “About” section.Then simply enter the publisher’s name or its URL in the search box above. Like a wolf in sheep’s clothing, these tricky publications are as threatening as they are clever. —— BEALLSLIST.NET —— BEALL'S LIST OF PREDATORY JOURNALS AND PUBLISHERS. Figures are not to scale and have been approximated. The vast majority of scholars either never, or only occasionally submitted reviews for predatory journals to Publons (89.96% and 7.55% of all reviewers, respectively). Investigating journals: The dark side of publishing. A lot of predatory journals find it very hard to attract enough submissions to publish issues consistently. Selected publishers, journals but also members of the open-access community had objected against Beall’s understanding of predatory journals. #15: The journal sends open calls/unsolicited emails to many authors to invite them to submit papers to them. Their search engine is quite flexible. Inside academia, Beall had received a lot of recognition for his list and for systematically analysing and identifying predatory journal practices, which many scholars were using to avoid falling into these journals’ traps. These journals quack like ducks but sink like stones. If your journal appears on this list then there is a good chance it is not predatory. If so, please sign up to receive our free guides. Here a number of academics came together to try to define what constitutes a predatory journal. The problem had ballooned into a danger. Allen, R. 2018. Towards the end of the first decade of the 2000s,  people began to notice the increasing practices of predatory journals. Threats of legal cases by some of the publishers he had labelled as ‘predatory’ resulted in Beall taking the list down. However, if a journal you want to submit your work to, does meet one or several of the above mentioned criteria, it does not mean definitively that it is a predatory journal. The DOAJ is a kind of whitelist for open access journals as certain criteria must be met in order to be listed. Shen, C., Björk, B.-C. 2015. We wrote a friendly message back to the Editor to explain that we couldn’t accept reviewing the paper due to lack of expertise. LMU Librarian Publications & Presentations. One can use the criteria used by Jeffrey Beall for determining predatory publishers. Butler, D. 2013. 123 countries represented. These journals act as predators and consider the authors, often new or inexperienced ones, as their prey and lure them into their traps. It can, sometimes, be hard to define what a predatory journal is due to a lack of a global definition, as pointed out so well by Cobey et al. Quickly, the list grew to several thousand journals and publishers accused of unethical journal publication practices. On the above-mentioned Cabell’s Blacklist currently almost 12,000 so-called predatory journals are listed (Andersen 2019). They hop like frogs but their butts aren’t watertight. the list of criteria for the identification of predatory journals developed by Eriksson & Helgesson (2016) the v.1.1 criteria version for the identification of predatory journals developed by Cabells (a for-profit company) Looking at the full range of these criteria, we only retained those that are: Don’t do it! The Index Copernicus Value is promoted on the website. Being aware of the practices of predatory journals is the first step. Dadkhah, M., Borchardt, G. 2016. We all should be aware of these practices, because they pose a threat to the very integrity of the academic ecosystem. In those cases where it is very difficult to tell them apart, researchers should consult their librarians or fellow-researchers to… So why would they ask us for a review? Read our top tips for avoiding paying money only to be published in a predatory journal. Where not to find journal articles: Predatory journals: One major drawback that has gained traction thanks to the open access movement is the phenomenon of predatory journals. What we thought was just an editorial lapse in judgement turned out not to be the exception. You don’t want your well-crafted paper based on many hours of hard work to end up abused by a corrupt publisher for their personal gain and thrown in the trash. List due to Shamseer, et al., BMC Medicine 15:28 (2017). #17: Predatory journals: How to identify them? It is not uncommon to find that the journal has published only 2 issues in an entire year. Predatory journals (also called deceptive or scamming journals) are accused of applying poor academic standards and practices in their editorial and peer-review processes. Since the closing down of Beall’s list, several successor initiatives have appeared ‘Cabell’s International’ offers ‘The Journal Blacklist’ on subscription basis. 11,341 journals without APC s. 15,615 journals. For further details on the rise and development of predatory journals see the articles by Allen (2018),  Butler (2013),  Dadkhah & Borchardt (2016), Eriksson & Helgesson (2017), and Straumsheim (2017). By 2016, that number had grown to 923 publishers. Open access publishing has a dark side, the predatory publishers and journals that exist for revenue rather than scholarly activity. We looked into the traps and obstacles for you and came up with a set of 25 criteria that can help you to identify unethical or deceptive behaviour in journal publications. Papers are also accepted within very short time. Contact addresses can also be incomplete. The term ‘predatory journal’ was coined by Jeffrey Beall, a librarian at the University of Colorado, who observed and systematically analysed a growing number of exploitative academic journals charging author fees without proper quality-check of the submitted and published papers. Clark, J. Description of the manuscript handling process is lacking. An anonymous group started the initiative ‘Stop Predatory Journals’ listing some 1,300 possible predatory journals, based on Beall’s list. You should always check whether a journal you want to publish in is telling the truth.If a journal is indexed by JCR or/and DOAJ, that is usually a very good indicator that the journal is not predatory. How to avoid predatory journals—a. Something else that you can do is to run the site content through text-matching tools and find out if the content has been pirated from other sites. Shamseer, L., Moher, D., Maduekwe, O., Turner, L., Barbour, V., Burch, R.. , J., Galipeau, J., Roberts, J., Shea, B.J. The list below is a selection of what we think are the most prominent and easy to spot indicators. Be part of an amazing group of academics from all over the world! #14: The journal has a poor and unprofessional looking website. This is a list of possibly predatory journals.The kernel for this list was extracted from the archive of Beall’s list at will be updated as new information or suggested edits are submitted or found by the maintainers of this site. Inside Higher Ed, January 18, 2017. do not apply a standardised peer-review process, may not send your paper to peer-reviewers or may not apply any editing or improvement of them before publishing, publish a high number of low-quality papers, are more likely to publish fake or hoax papers, as they do not identify them as such due to their poor quality control, send spam emails to thousands of researchers asking them to contribute to the journal, list members on editorial boards without those people agreeing or knowing of it, make up names of editorial board members or authors, copy material, design and advertise as established and legitimate journals, may even hijack established journals by setting up journals with identical names and similar websites, make up or fake journal metrics such as impact factors and others, state wrong or misleading information about the size and the location of the publisher. #PredatoryJournals, #PredatoryPublishers, #JournalPaper, #DeceptiveJournals, #WritingPapers. The Scholarly Kitchen Blog. #22: The journal’s contact email address is non-professional and non-journal affiliated (e.g. They were used to create the original Beall’s list and are used now for the updated lists. or Unfortunately, some disreputable journals are launched without finding any highly regarded scientists in the field to serve on the editorial board. #13: The Editor-in-Chief of this journal is also the Editor-in-Chief of (many) other journals with widely different subjects. Rele, et al., LMU Librarian Publications & Presentations 40 (2017), Shamseer, et al., BMC Medicine 15:28 (2017), Click here to search JCR master journal list. Finally, ask a librarian! Cobey, K. D., Lalu, M. M., Skidmore, B., Ahmadzai, N., Grudniewicz, A., & Moher, D. 2018. While most predatory journals will probably be covered by Google Scholar your work won't be as visible if it's missing from other research databases. Journals claiming to be open access either retain copyright of published research or fail to mention copyright. Searching DOAJ database is quite easy – you just need to enter the journal’s name, ISSN or the journal’s publisher. Please see the Nature (Journal ) Comment on predatory journals. Simple Warning Signs That Will Help. Many predatory journals are claiming they are indexed by DOAJ and JCR Master List, while they are not. #6: The journal publishes papers that are far outside the scope of the journal. The number of predatory journals and papers published in these journals is continuously growing. Predatory journals are open access , but their invitation to publish with them does not include the price of publishing, only if you search thoroughly their site you might find the price rate. Spotting predatory journals is quite easy in most cases. Med Health Care and Philos 20: 163., European Association of Science Editors (EASE). The names mentioned are not well-known researchers. Thus, this website will work as a proxy for Beall's list of predatory publishing as well as portal for scholars and researchers to report their concerns about any predatory journal or conference. Therefore, we think it crucial to summarise the main features of these journals for you and how you can identify them. Librarians are trained to spot predatory journals. This means their shares of predatory reviews ranged from one to 25% of all reviews. A good review of the value of this list is available on the Scholarly Kitchen Blog. Some common forms of predatory publishing practices include falsely claiming to provide peer review, hiding informatio … By default, most predatory journals have at least a few red flags (as listed here) that should warn researchers of the true nature of the journals. So far so good, but we wondered why they had picked us as potential reviewers. Let’s get a quick overview of the potential issues of misconduct and unethical behaviour that you may find from predatory journals: All the behaviours listed above should give you enough reason to assume that an ethical and respected scholar would not consider publishing in any of these outlets. The journal does not state a fixed number of issues and volumes to be published per year. DOAJ in numbers. Even if the temptation is high, you are harming yourself: Yes, you can get around predatory journals. Your paper eventually will no longer be accessible if the publisher doesn’t have a long-term storage policy. From the multitude of criteria (over 65 items) provided, we made a concise selection for you that should enable you to check yourself. International Association of Scientific, Technical, & Medical Publishers (STM). We first came into touch with a predatory journal many years ago: In our inbox there was a message from the Editor of an international medical journal. 80 languages. Do you want to write a journal paper? It has a very low number of published papers and issues so far. Make sure to search through journals only, unless you want to find an open-access article (see picture below). Aesthetic Surgery Journal 36. Non-predatory journals tend to have a much more focused scope, as they want to address just single area and not spread themselves too thinly. Finding out you've been the victim of a scam is never fun. #4: The journal claims or seems to be rather new. Conditions of research papers. The ace in the hole for questionable journals appears to be the willingness of desperate researchers to accept the bogus information with which they are … #10: The journal claims to be very international but has no or very few papers from well-known or international authors. 2015. Straumsheim, C. 2017. The false academy: predatory publishing in science and bioethics. Hijacked Journals: An Emerging Challenge for Scholarly Publishing. If a journal is indexed by JCR or/and DOAJ, that is usually a very good indicator that the journal is not predatory. The contact email address is non-professional and non-journal affiliated (e.g., or How did they even find us? A study by Shen & Björk (2015) revealed a rise of active predatory journals from 1,800 in 2010 to 8,000 in 2016. 5,501,361 article records. Within a very short time, you will know whether you can submit to your journal in mind, or whether you are about to become prey to predatory publishing practices and would be better off going somewhere else. BMC Medicine 15:28. Follow the simple guide written by the authors to score the journal of your choice.Rele, et al., LMU Librarian Publications & Presentations 40 (2017). Due to constant problems with Weebly service, we decided to move to an independent server. Don't hesitate to ask for a second opinion. The Article processing/publication charge is very low (e.g., < $150 USD). #18: The journal claims to have an impact factor despite the fact it is a new journal in which case it cannot have an impact factor yet. These can still be very decent journals. A newer and more recent form of predatory journals are the so-called hijacked journals, where predatory journals impersonate t established, legitimate journals and pretend to be the original journal and lure authors in to submit to them. Even if your paper does not get accepted, you will still have to pay the fee. The website now allows you to search quite flexibly, however it requires a login to view the detailed record of the journal. They do not publish in nor read this journal. We shall gather and present more information regarding this issue on the coming posts to help the academics to identify and avoid falling into the trap of predatory journals. If you receive an email inviting you to submit your work to a journal which you are not familiar with, it is extremely likely that it is from a predatory publisher. [N.B: As of 2020, this product has been renamed Predatory Reports.] Always make sure that the journal you found has the same website and ISSNas the journal you are looking for. 2017. The fees are typically rather low compared to established, legitimate journals (e.g. Manuscripts are requested to be submitted via email. (2018). In 2011, Beall’s list included 18 publishers. A cross-sectional comparison. Avoiding Predatory Journals – Charlesworth Author Services You might get charged an exorbitant rate for publishing your paper. What is a predatory journal? Are predatory journals the publishing equivalent of what Donald Trump might call “a bad hombre ”? Even more unethical! #21: The journal is not indexed in any of the established journal databases such as. #24: The journal (if it is open access) is not listed on the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Although the list pertains biomed journals, it can be easily applied to all other topics. Predatory journals arose with the onset of the open-access movement. #19: The journal requires authors to transfer copyright despite claiming it is open access. They apply poor ethical procedures by claiming to live-up to the established quality control standards in peer-review, but do so only on a superficial level. Neither of us had any expertise in medical research, certainly not in the specific medical topic of the paper under review. (2017), the ‘Think, Check, Submit’ initiative and the anonymous initiative Stop Predatory Journals. Suddenly, many new publishers came on the market and started their journals as online-only. #25: The journal is not read or known by your colleagues. Journal Evaluation Tool is a scoring sheet that anyone can use to determine the credibility of a journal. This article helps researchers to: (1) identify some of the commonly used tactics and characteristics of predatory publishing; and (2) avoid falling prey to them. Potential predatory and legitimate biomedical journals: can you tell the difference? You should always check whether a journal you want to publish in is telling the truth. #3: The journal defines no clear publication date. Publishers Standalone Journals Vanity Press Contact Other Hello. If the journal is in your area of research, you should recognize some of the names on the editorial board. It is great that you are taking care to avoid predatory journals before submitting your paper. European Association of Science Editors (EASE). Predatory journals are scam publishers that charge authors fees upfront, but do not provide the service they promise. They make academic life more difficult. 40. Take your envisioned journal through our Predatory Journal Test and make sure your paper, your money, and your career are in safe hands. #2: The journal promises a very fast publication process. JCR recently also introduced a service where if you upload your manuscript, they can tell you which JCR-indexed journals match the topics within your article. In the years to come, we regularly received similar requests from international scientific and academic journals, completely off-topic! #1: The journal asks for a submission rather than publication fee. This website offers clear advises about how to publish in a reputable journal. We still get them! If you do not, search for publications fr… Predatory journals/publishers, also described as "questionable" journals, can be defined as journals that lack discernible scholarship, academic rigor or credibility, and use aggressive practices to recruit authors and editors. Some authors might feel compelled to take the irresistible offer, despite assuming or even knowing that it is a false promise. #7: The journal requests manuscripts to be submitted via email. On the above-mentioned Cabell’s Blacklist currently almost 12,000 so-called predatory journals are listed (Andersen 2019). Typically 72h to a very few weeks, which makes it rather unrealistic that a proper peer-review process is going to be applied. The Beall's list of predatory publishing contains more than +1000 entries of predatory publishers and journals that cannot be easily searched manually. If you want more help with writing a great journal paper, join Paper Writing Academy.